Archive for the ‘Chemistry’ Category

A Joke

September 14, 2011 Leave a comment

reaction to the article:

The first thing that entered my mind while reading this article is “isn’t dihydrogen monoxide the same as water?” Because dihydrogen = 2 hydrogen and monoxide = 1 oxygen and H2O is simply water. But the article paints it in such a way that in sounds toxic and that it is a thing that we should avoid at all costs. Quite contrary to their claim, water is actually the core of life here on Earth. Nothing can live without this compound.

I am amused on how the article was written, despite generally correct facts about the substance, they were still able to paint water in such a bad light that it looks like its synonymous with a radiation. Anyway, I believe that this article was a satire to emphasize the dangers of chemistry and just following what everybody says, because they have facts without thinking it through yourself. It teaches you to use common sense and do a bit of research to make sure what your reading is true and not just a bunch of serious sounding lies.

Categories: Chemistry


August 11, 2011 Leave a comment

Sulfur is an atom, a happy creature we can say, happy with all his 32 cells 16 positive brain cells, 16 neutral muscle cells and 16 negative emotional cells. He was brought to light from the darkest and deepest caverns of the earth and finally recognized for who he really is in the early days of our history and was given the name shulbari (direct translation of enemy of copper (shulba) in sanskrit) Of course the name has change right now to Sulfur because he has to make himself hip to fit the times.
He is quite a balanced creature, albeit not the strongest with a total nuclear charge of 16, has 3p⁴ as his valence electrons to look good and has electronegative charge of 2.5 to pull his girlfriend potassium in.It takes a lot to take sulfur down, he is also quite well built having an ionization energy of 10.360 eV. Being the creature he is, it takes 112.8ºc to melt him and 444.6ºc to boil him. The body build of sulfur is also not too bad since he has an atomic radius of 127 pm and an ionic radius of 30 (6e) 184 (2e). The shielding effect preventing it from being too small.
Sulfur and his girlfriend potassium bond together a lot. when they do, they can really make quite a bang and injure others. Sulfur is also the creature that slaves off in car batteries helping it run so never underestimate or ignore sulfer, he’s a lot more important than we may think at first.

Categories: Chemistry


August 2, 2011 Leave a comment

I’m sure you’ve ridden on an airplane before. As you know, in PAL, there’s Economy Class, Fiesta Class, Mabuhay Class and Business class, with each of them having it’s own levels of comfort and number of people. An atom’s electrons and orbitals aren’t too different. Wait a second….before we can compare them…..we need to find out what an Orbital is! An orbital is the region where an electron is found! So putting it that way….if people are electrons…..then orbitals are there seats!

If there are seats on an airplane, then there must be different flight classes! If orbitals are the seats then the subshells are the flight class! By definition, Subshells are a cluster of Orbits together. Like different flight classes, subshells also have different types which have different “seating capacities” for electrons.

There are 4 Subshells that are commonly used

1.)Spheric(spheric shaped) subshells are subshells which comprise of a maximum of two electrons. Think of these as the “business class seats” since there is only one orbital here with a maximum of two electrons making it more quiet and expensive.

2.)Principled (dumbell shaped)subshells are subshells which comprise a maximum of 6 electron. Think of these as “Mabuhay Class”seats. They have a maximum of 3 orbitals, which is still a luxury ride although a little bit cheaper than business class, albeit it’s a little bit more packed.

3.)Diffused(four planar) subshells are subshells which comprise of a maximum of 10 electron. Think of it as “economy class” since there are many electrons who cannot “afford” business or mabuhay class so they’re all stacked together within 5 orbits.

4.)fundemental(complex) subshells are subshells which comprise of a maximum of 14 electron. The electrons are all stacked within 7 orbits.

Too completely understand all of this, we need to learn 3 important principles.

1.)The Aufbau

All electrons would wand to be in the lowest subshell, 1s since it is nearest to the nucleus and the attrction of the positive protons is  at its strongest. unfortunately this cannot be so each of the following electrons would take an orbital in the subshell just above it. the electrons make a compromise since the first choice of the lower subshells are already taken. This continues until all the electrons are in orbitals already. Basically, it’s arranged in increasing order because of the lack of space for an electron in the previous orbital.

Pauli exclusion principle.
This is perhaps the most complicated principle to understand. it states that no two electrons can have the same quantum state. what does this mean? first the basics

the quantum state (physical state of a particle) of an electron are determined by 4 variables which are called quantum numbers. they are
1. principal numbers or (n)
2.  the azimuthal quantum number (l)
3. the magnetic quantum number (Ml)
4. the spin quantum nubmber (Ms)

what are these numbers?

the principal number or n is signifies the electron shell of that specific electron this means that 1s, 1 being n, states that it is in the first electron shell which is how far it is from the nucleus. it also describes the size of the orbital

the azimuthal quantum number or l is the subshell of the specific electron whether it is s, p, d or f since it signifies the angular momentum or shape of the orbital

The magnetic quantum number or ml determines the orientation of the orbitals within the sub level. let’s take subshell P as an example. Since there are 3 orbitals in this subshell, they are aligned in the x, y, and z axes so the magnetic quantum number or ml of this particular. these are noted by -1, 0 and 1 representing the 3 different orientations of the orbitals. this video will help.

before explaining the spin quantum number, we should first explain why its needed. The principle states that no two electrons can have the same state. it refers particularly to this property. Since we say that there are two electrons are in the same orbital, they will probably have the same velocity angle, and whatever the past 3 variables were talking about. so how do we differentiate them? also, another reason we cannot have electrons in the same state is that if they were put in the same orbital, they will cancel each other out and result in no electron at all. let me clarify

If an electron’s wave is going clockwise, and its counterpart is also spinning clockwise, they will be in opposite sided of the orbital at all times because we assume that it is negative so they repel each other. when they spin, at the same speed and everything, the wave will end up being a line thus nullifying it so there will be no electron at all. This calls for something to differentiate them which is their spin. their spin will be opposite to each other one will spin clockwise, while the other goes counterclockwise creating the difference needed to maintain the electron’s presence in its orbitals. These are signified in the box model as and .

1.Principle Numbers-Which electron shell it’s in(like, what building you need to go to)
2.The Azimuthal Quantum number-The specific subshell of an electron, shows you the shape of the orbital(Like, what floor you go to in said building)
3.Magnetic Quantum Number-Each orbital have a unique angle/axis when combined form a subshell. (Like what office you go to in each floor)
4.The Spin Quantum Number-Since in orbitals, electrons have the same velocity, they need a different spin. Why? Because. If both electrons had an equal amount of spin, they would cancel each other out. (Like the way two employees can’t have the EXACT same tasks in an office)

3.)Box Model

What is the box model?
We now know that orbitals have 2 electrons and each electron has a unique spin, either up or down. One way to visualize this is through the box model. let us get a box which is the orbital.

as you see in the picture, lets take number 1 and 2. the box has 2 arrows showing the 2 electrons with different spins.

You might be wondering why in number 3, 2p3 has 3 arrows going up instead if 2 boxes of one up and down arrow and the second box with only one up arrow. This is where Hund’s rule comes in.

He says that every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
This method increases the stability of the atom because the dilution of electron-nuclear attraction is decreased. ie there will be more attraction happening when only one electron is present in the particular orbital. see the video for more clarifications!

How do we write something in the electron notation?
-That’s very easy! All you need to know is a few things.
A.)The number of electrons
B.) The order of which they go to(Refer to the Aufbau Principle’s picture)

Taking Krypton as an example, it has 36 electrons. In standard notation, that is
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6
1s2, 1 is the electron subshell level(it’s lower energy to higher remember!), s refers to the subshell type(Spherical) and 2 refers to the number of electrons in said subshell. All in all, this makes 36 electrons.

©Bryan Giger, Paolo Buted; 2011

Categories: Chemistry

Isotopes brochure

July 20, 2011 Leave a comment


Categories: Chemistry